Sunday, December 1, 2019

Motorcycle and Hero Honda Essay Example

Motorcycle and Hero Honda Essay Index 1. Introduction to HERO MOTOCORP 2. Company Profile 3. List of Board of Directors 4. Awards and Achievements 5. 4P’s of the Company 6. Product Information 7. Product Mix 8. Segmentation 9. Distribution strategy 10. Competition 11. SWOT Analysis 12. Survey 13. Bibliography Hero MotoCorp  formerly  Hero Honda  is a  motorcycle  and  scooter manufacturer based in India. Hero Honda started in 1984 as a joint venture between  Hero cycles  of India and  Honda of Japan. The company is the largest two wheeler manufacturer in India. The 2006 Forbes 200 Most Respected companies list has Hero Honda Motors ranked at 108. In 2010, When Honda decided to  move out of the joint venture,  Hero Group bought the shares held by Honda. Subsequently, in August 2011 the company was renamed Hero MotoCorp with a new corporate identity Termination of Honda joint venture In December 2010, the Board of Directors of the Hero Honda Group have decided to terminate the joint venture between Hero Group of India and Honda of Japan in a phased manner. The Hero Group would buy out the 26% stake of the Honda in JV Hero Honda. Under the joint venture Hero Group could not export to international markets (except Sri Lanka) and the termination would mean that Hero Group can now export. Since the beginning, the Hero Group relied on their Japanese partner Honda for the technology in their bikes. So there are concerns that the Hero Group might not be able to sustain the performance of the Joint Venture alone Hero MotoCorp The new brand identity and logo, Hero MotoCorp, was developed by the London firm  Ã‚  The logo was revealed on 9 August 2011 in London, the day before the third  Test match between England and India. We will write a custom essay sample on Motorcycle and Hero Honda specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Motorcycle and Hero Honda specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Motorcycle and Hero Honda specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hero MotoCorp can now export to Latin America, Africa and West Asia. Hero is free to use any vendors for its components instead of just Honda-approved vendors. Company’s performance During the fiscal year 2008-09, the company sold 3. 7 million bikes, a growth of 12% over last year. In the same year, the company had a market share of 57% in the Indian market. Hero Honda sells more two wheelers than the second, third and fourth placed two-wheeler companies put together. Hero Hondas bike  Hero Honda Splendor  sells more than one million units per year. Total unit sales of 54,02,444 two wheelers, growth of 17. 44 per cent Total net operating income of Rs. 19401. 15 Crores, growth of 22. 32 per cent Net profit after tax at Rs. 1927. 90 Crores Total dividend of 5250% or Rs. 105 per share including Interin Dividend of Rs. 70 per share on face value of each share of Rs. 2 each EBIDTA margin for the year 13. 49 per cent EPS of Rs. 96. 54   - History Hero MotoCorp was started in 1984 as Hero Honda Motors Ltd. 1956 Formation of  Hero Cycles  in Ludhiana(majestic auto limited) * 1975 Hero Cycles becomes largest bicycle manufacturer in India. * 1983 Joint Collaboration Agreement with  Honda Motor  Co. Ltd. Japan signed Shareholders Agreement signed * 1984 Hero Honda Motors Ltd. incorporated * 1985 Hero Honda motorcycle CD 100 launched. * 1989 Hero Honda motorcycle Sleek launched. * 1991 Hero Honda motorcycle CD 100 SS launched. * 1994   Hero Honda motorcycle Splendor  launched. * 1997 Hero Honda motorcycle Street launc hed. * 1999   Hero Honda motorcycle CBZ  launched. 2001   Hero Honda motorcycle Passion  and Hero Honda Joy launched. * 2002 Hero Honda motorcycle Dawn and Hero Honda motorcycle Ambition launched. * 2003 Hero Honda , motorcycle CD Dawn, Hero Honda motorcycle Splendor, Hero Honda motorcycle Passion Plus and  Hero Honda motorcycle Karizma  launched. * 2004 Hero Honda motorcycle Ambition 135 and Hero Honda motorcycle CBZ* launched. * 2005 Hero Honda motorcycle Super Splendor, Hero Honda motorcycle CD Deluxe, Hero Honda motorcycle Glamour, Hero Honda motorcycle Achiever and Hero Honda Scooter Pleasure. 2007 New Models of Hero Honda motorcycle Splendor NXG, New Models of Hero Honda motorcycle CD Deluxe, New Models of Hero Honda motorcycle Passion Plus and  Hero Honda motorcycle Hunk  launched. * 2008 New Models of Hero Honda motorcycles Pleasure,  CBZ Xtreme, Glamour, Glamour Fi and Hero Honda motorcycle Passion Pro launched. * 2009 New Models of  Hero Honda mo torcycle Karizma:Karizma ZMR and limited edition of  Hero Honda motorcycle Hunk  launched * 2010 New Models of Hero Honda motorcycle Splendor Pro and  New  Hero Honda motorcycle Hunk  and  New  Hero Honda Motorcycle Super Splendor launched. 2011 New Models of Hero Honda motorcycles Glamour, Glamour FI, CBZ Xtreme, Karizma launched. New licensing arrangement signed between Hero and Honda. * August 2011 Hero and Honda part company, thus forming Hero MotoCorp and  Honda  moving out of the Hero Honda joint venture. * November 2011 Hero launched its first ever Off Road Bike Named Hero Impulse CHAIRMAN’S PROFILE |   | Dr. Brijmohan Lall Munjal Dont dream if you cant fulfill your dreams Brijmohan Lall Munjal is often fond of saying. The founder and patriarch of the $3. 2 billion Hero Group is your classic first generation entrepreneur. He is a man who started small, dreamt big and used a combination of grit and perseverance to create one of the countrys largest corporate groups and the Worlds No. 1 Two Wheeler Company. | | | Instinctive from a young age, Brijmohan Lall made a rather unusual start in life. Around the time when the freedom movement in India was taking shape in the late 1920s, he walked into a newly opened Gurukul (Indian heritage school) near his home in Kamalia (now in Pakistan). He was only six years old then. Thus began an extraordinary tale of courage and perseverance. Brijmohan began his business story after partition in 1947, when he and his brothers relocated to Ludhiana. The family set up a company that provided poor people with basic transport (cycles). Three decades later, as India evolved, he added a second crucial chapter which visualized affordable and technologically superior transport to millions of middle class Indians. The rest is history. Building Relationships When Brijmohan and his brothers started out, there was no concept of organized dealer networks. Companies just produced, and most dealers functioned like traders. Brijmohan changed the rules of the business by trusting his gut instincts; introducing business norms that were ahead of their time, and by investing in strategic relationships. Brijmohan built a series of bonds and networks with hundreds of family members, vendors, dealers and employees. Much like the Japanese keiretsu system, these networks are now the glue that holds the Hero Group together. Thanks to the relationships that we have nurtured so passionately in the Hero Family, the younger generations of some of our bicycle dealers have become dealers of Hero MotoCorp. These relationships have survived through generations through bad times and good times the patriarch now reminiscences. Besides bonding with his vendors and dealers, Brijmohan has been personally responsible for kindling a spirit of entrepreneurship amongst his employees, and today, 40 of his former employees are successful entrepreneurs. Staying Ahead Though not technically qualified in the conventional sense, few of his contemporaries have understood the dynamics of technology better than Brijmohan Lall has. He could always visualize the applicability of technology before others could. For example, in the 1980s, when all two-wheeler companies in India opted for two-stroke engine technology, Brijmohan preferred a four-stroke engine a technology that dramatically increased fuel efficiency and reduced maintenance costs. This technology was one of the biggest reasons for Hero MotoCorps stupendous success. A Corporate Citizen A frugal upbringing and a value system modeled on the famous Gurukul system which stresses the sanctity of the teacher-pupil relationship imbibed in Brijmohan a strong sense of social commitment and responsibility. There is a special place in his heart for Ludhiana, the city where he took roots. Today, Ludhiana is a modern, bustling city, but Brijmohan has played no mean role in its evolution. Several schools and educational institutions in Ludhiana owe their existence to the Munjal family. The Ludhiana Stock Exchange owes its existence to Brijmohans vision as does the Ludhiana Flying Club. Hes also set up the not-for-profit Dayanand Medical College and Hospital-an institute now rated as one of the best medical colleges in India, in terms of infrastructure, quality of staff and alumni profile. In and around Dharuhera, near the first Hero MotoCorp plant, Brijmohan and his family have left their stamp of philanthropy. The Raman Kant Munjal Foundation which Brijmohan set up in memory of his eldest son, today runs a higher secondary school and a very modern and well-equipped 100-bed hospital at Dharuhera. The group has also adopted numerous villages and provides education, vocational training, drinking water, roads, streetlights and sewerage. Dr. Brijmohan Lall Munjal Chairman Message from Management What the caterpillar calls the end the rest of the world calls a butterfly. ~Lao Tzu~ Constant improvement has been the key fuel that has powered the engines of this company since inception. Happily, we are now building on that momentum to go further in our journey of market leadership and corporate excellence. After forging together one of the worlds most prolific and successful joint ventures for over two and a half decades, and becoming Desh ki Dhadkan we at Hero are now poise d to prove ourselves on the global arena. We are pleased to announce that Hero Honda Motors Ltd. is now Hero MotoCorp Ltd. The new name is reflective of our belief in ourselves and our focus on mobility and technology. In this endeavor, our domain knowledge of the market, our customer-centric approach, our world class manufacturing facilities processes, our committed and skilled personnel, our seamless integrated supply chain and our strong relationships with all stakeholders will hold us in good stead. On the technology front, our existing R D facility is being rapidly upgraded with support, where required, from global experts and technology providers. As we embark on this novel journey with a new identity, we shall continue to set new benchmarks for the industry. We shall develop new and cutting-edge products at a faster pace and aggressively expand our footprint outside India. Yes, a new day has dawned and a new Hero is rising. We know we can count on your blessings and continued endorsement of the Company and its products. Best, Pawan Munjal Dr. Brijmohan Lall Milestones 1983 Joint Collaboration Agreement with Honda Motor Co. Ltd. Japan signed Shareholders Agreement signed 1984 Hero Honda Motors Ltd. ncorporated 1985 First motorcycle CD 100 rolled out 1987 100,000th motorcycle produced 1989 New motorcycle model Sleek introduced 1991 New motorcycle model CD 100 SS introduced 500,000th motorcycle produced 1992 Raman Munjal Vidya Mandir inaugurated A School in the memory of founder Managing Director, Mr. Raman Kant Munjal 1994 New motorcycle model Splendor introduced 1,000,000th motorcycle produced 1997 New motorcycle model St reet introduced Hero Hondas 2nd manufacturing plant at Gurgaon inaugurated 1998 2,000,000th motorcycle produced 999 New motorcycle model CBZ introduced Environment Management System of Dharuhera Plant certified with ISO-14001 by DNV Holland Raman Munjal Memorial Hospital inaugurated A Hospital in the memory of founder Managing Director, Mr. Raman Kant Munjal 2000 4,000,000th motorcycle produced Environment Management System of Gurgaon Plant certified ISO-14001 by DNV Holland   Splendor declared World No. 1 largest selling single two-wheeler model   Hero Honda Passport Programme CRM Programme launched 2001 New motorcycle model Passion introduced One million production in one single year New motorcycle model Joy introduced 5,000,000th motorcycle produced 2002 New motorcycle model Dawn introduced New motorcycle model Ambition introduced Appointed Virender Sehwag, Mohammad Kaif, Yuvraj Singh, Harbhajan Singh and Zaheer Khan as Brand Ambassadors 2003 Becomes the first Indian Company to cross the cumulative 7 million sales mark Splendor has emerged as the Worlds largest selling model for the third calendar year in a row (2000, 2001, 2002) New motorcycle model CD Dawn introduced New motorcycle model Splendor + introduced New motorcycle model Passion Plus introduced New motorcycle model Karizma introduced 2004 New motorcycle model Ambition 135 introduced Hero Honda became the World No. 1 Company for the third consecutive year. Crossed sales of over 2 million units in a single year, a global record. Splendor Worlds largest selling motorcycle crossed the 5 million mark New motorcycle model CBZ* introduced Joint Technical Agreement renewed Total sales crossed a record of 10 million motorcycles 2005 Hero Honda is the World No. for the 4th year in a row New motorcycle model Super Splendor introduced New motorcycle model CD Deluxe introduced New motorcycle model Glamour introduced New motorcycle model Achiever introduced First Scooter model from Hero Honda Pleasure introduced 2006 Hero Honda is the World No. 1 for the 5th year in a row 15 million production milestone achieved 2006 Hero Honda is the World No. 1 for the 5th year in a row 15 million product ion milestone achieved 2007 Hero Honda is the World No. 1 for the 6th year in a row New Splendor NXG launched New CD Deluxe launched New Passion Plus launched New motorcycle model Hunk launched 20 million production milestone achieved 2008 Hero Honda Haridwar Plant inauguration New Pleasure launched Splendor NXG lauched with power start feature New motorcycle model Passion Pro launched New CBZ Xtreme launched 25 million production milestone achieved CD Deluxe lauched with power start feature New Glamour launched New Glamour Fi launched 2009 Hero Honda GoodLife Program launched Hunk (Limited Edition) launched Splendor completed 11 million production landmark New motorcycle model Karizma ZMR launched Silver jubilee celebrations 2010 New model Splendor Pro launched Launch of new Super Splendor and New Hunk 2011 New licensing arrangement signed between Hero and Honda Launch of new refreshed versions of Glamour, Glamour FI, CBZ Xtreme, Karizma Crosses the landmark figure of 5 million cumulative sales in a single year AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS 2011 Two-wheeler Manufacturer of the Year award by Bike India magazine. Adjudged the Bike Manufacturer of the Year at the Economic Times ZigWheels Car and Bike Awards.    CNBC Awaaz   Storyboard special commendation for Effective rebranding of a new corporate entity by CNBC Awaaz Consumer Awards   Most Recommended Two-Wheeler Brand of the Year  award by CNBC Awaaz Consumer Awards    Colloquy Loyalty Awards  Innovation in Loyalty Marketing International 2011  for Hero GoodLife   Best Activity Generating Short or Long-Term Brand Loyalty  by the Promotion Marketing Award of Asia Order o f Merit for Hero GoodLife    Ranked No 1 brand in the Auto (Two-Wheelers) category in the Brand Equity  Most Trusted Brand2011 survey 010 Rated as Top Indian Company in Automobile Two Wheelers sector by Dun Bradstreet Rolta Corporate Awards 2009   Most Preferred Brand of Two-Wheelers award at the CNBC Awaaz Consumer Awards. Adjudged at top of the two-wheeler category in the Brand Equity Most Trusted Brands 2010 Survey. Ranked No. Most Trusted Brand across categories amongst Young Adult Males   Company of the Year  awarded by Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence 2008-09. CNBC TV18 Overdrive Awards 2010  Hall of Fame to Splendor NDTV Profit Car Bike Awards 2010 * Two-wheeler Manufacturer of the Year * CnB Viewers Choice Two-wheeler of the Year (Karizma ZMR) * Bike Maker of the Year  by ET-ZigWheels Car ; Bike of the Year Awards 2009 2009 Two-wheeler Manufacturer of the Year  by NDTV Profit Car Bike Awards 2009 and Passion Pro adjudged as CNB Viewers Choice two-wheeler Top Indian Company under the Automobile Two-wheelers sector bythe Dun Bradstreet-Rolta Corporate Awards Won Gold in the Readers  Digest Trusted Brand 2009  in the Motorcycles category NDTV Profit Business Leadership Awards 2009   two-wheeler category 2008 NDTV Profit Business Leadership Award 2008   Hero Honda Wins the Coveted NDTV Profit Business Leadership Award 2008 TopGear Design Awards 2008   Hunk Bike of the Year Award NDTV Profit Car India Bike India Awards   NDTV Viewers Choice Award to Hunk in Bike categoryIndiaTimes Mindscape and Savile Row ( A Forbes Group Venture ) Loyalty Awards   Customer and Brand Loyalty Award in Automobile (two-wheeler) sector   Asian Retail Congress Award for Retail Excellence  (Strategies and Solutions of business innovation and transformation) Best Customer Loyalty Program in Automobile category   NDTV Profit Car India Bike India Awards Bike Manufacturer of the year   Overdrive Magazine   Bike Manufacturer of the year TNS Voice of the Customer Awards: * No. executive motorcycle Splendor NXG * No. 1 standard motorcycle CD Deluxe * No. premium motorcycle CBZ Xtreme 2007 The NDTV Profit Car India Bike India Awards 2007 in the following category: * Overall Bike of the Year CBZ X-treme * Bike of the Year CBZ X-treme (up to 150 cc category) * Bike Technology of the Year Glamout PGM FI Auto Tech of the Year Glamout PGM FI by Overdrive Magazine. Bike of the Year CBZ X-treme by Overdrive Magazine. Ranked CBZ X-treme Bike of the Year by B S Motoring Magazine   Most Trusted Company , by TNS Voice of the Customer Awards 2006. CD Deluxe rated as No 1 standard motorcycle by TNS Voice of the Customer Awards 2006. 2006 Adjudged 7th Top Indian Company by Wallstreet Journal Asia (Top Indian Two Wheeler Company). One of the 8 Indian companies to enter the Forbes top 200 list of worlds most reputed companies. No. 1 in automobile industry by TNS Corporate Social Responsibility Award. Best in its class awards for each category by TNS Total Customer Satisfaction Awards 2006: * Splendor Plus (Executive) * CD Deluxe (Entry) * Pleasure (Gearless Scooters) Splendor ; Passion Top two models in two wheeler category by ET Brand Equity Survey 2006. Adjudged 7th Top Indian Company by Wallstreet Journal Asia (Top Indian Two Wheeler Company). Top Indian company in the Automobile Two Wheeler sector by Dun ; Bradstreet   American Express Corporate Awards 2006. Hero Honda Splendor rated as Indias most preferred two-wheeler brand at the  Awaaz Consumer Awards 2006. Certificate of Export Excellence for outstanding export performance during 2003-04 for two-wheeler three- wheelers Complete (Non SSI) by Engineering Export Promotion Council. The NDTV Profit Car India Bike India Awards 2006 in the following category: * Bike Maker of the Year * Bike of the Year Achiever * Bike of the Year Achiever (up to 150 cc category) * Bike of the Year Glamour (up to 125 cc category) * NDTV Viewers Choice Award to Glamour in the bike category 2005 Awaaz Consumer Awards 2005 Indias most preferred two-wheeler brand by CNBC in the Automobiles category. Bike Maker of the Year Award by Overdrive Magazine. ICWAI National Award for Excellence (Second) in Cost Management 2004 in the private sector category by ICWAI. 0th Motilal Oswal Wealth Creator Award for as the most consistent wealth creator for the period 1991-2005. 2004 Winner of the Review 200 Asias Leading Companies Award (3rd Rank amongst the top 10 Indian companies). GVC Level 1 (Highest Rating) by CRISIL for corporate Governance. Adjudged as the Best Value Creator Large Size Companies 2003-04 by The Outlook Money. Corporate Excellence Award 2004 by Indian Institute of Materia ls Management. Adjudged as the Organization with Innovative HR Practices by HT Power Jobs for HR Excellence. ICSI National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance 2004 by The Institute of Company Secretaries of India. 2003 Winner of the Review 200 Asia s Leading Companies Award (3rd Rank amongst the top 10 Indian companies). Most Respected Company in Automobile Sector by Business World. Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine. 2002 Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine. Winner of the Review 200 Asia s Leading Companies Award (4th Rank amongst the top 10 Indian companies). Company of the Year of ET Awards for Corporate Excellence. Ranked 4th in Overall Best Managed Company category, ranked 3rd in Best Financial Management and Best Operational Efficiency category, ranked 6th in Overall Best Investor Relations category, by Asiamoney. Highest Wealth Creating Company of the Year Award by the Money. GVC Level 1 (Highest Rating) by CRISIL for Corporate Governance. 2001 Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine. Winner of the Review 200 Asia s Leading Companies Award (9th Rank amongst the top 10 Indian Companies). Winner of Three Leaves Award for showing Corporate Environment Responsibility in the Automobile Sector by Centre for Science Environment. 1999 National Productivity Award for the Best Productivity Award in the category of Automobile Tractor presented by Vice President of India. 1995 The Analyst Award 1995 presented to Hero Honda Motors Ltd. on being ranked 9th amongst the most investor rewarding companies in India. National Award for outstanding contribution to the Development of Indian Small Scale Industry (NSIC Award Presented by President of India). 1991 Economic Times-Harvard Business School Award for Corporate Performance to Hero Honda Motors Ltd. P’s of Hero Moto Corp 1. Product 2. Price 3. Place 4. Promotion 1. Product: Hero MotoCorp offers wide range of two wheeler products that include motorcycles and scooters, and has set the industry standards across all the market segments. 2. Price: Hero MotoCorp offers wide range of two wheeler products that include from low cost bikes to high end bikes. They create bikes for all segment of the society. 3. Place: The Companys growth in the t wo wheeler market in India is the result of an intrinsic ability to increase reach in new geographies and growth markets. Hero MotoCorps extensive sales and service network now spans over to 5000 customer touch points. These comprise a mix of authorized dealerships, service spare parts outlets, and dealer-appointed outlets across the country. with termination of contract with Honda motors Hero MotoCorp can go to international market like Latin America and Sri-lanka. 4. Promotion:Hero Honda event sponsorship, Fill it-Shut it-Forgot It campaign,Dhak Dhak Go campaign, Celebrity Endorsement,Why Should boys Have All the fun and the latest one Hum Mein Hai Hero Are few Promotional strategies of HeroMotoCorp Fill it-Shut it-Forget it Dhak Dhak Go Celebrity endorsement Why should boys have all the fun Hum Mein Hai Hero these were the few Advertising strategy of HeroMotoCorp. Appart from these strategy HeroMotoCorp also have Promotion schemes like Test Rides on Products, Easy Finance, Sponsorship, Quick Availability of product which makes them unique in the market. VISION The story of Hero Honda began with a simple vision the vision of a mobile and an empowered India, powered by its bikes. Hero MotoCorp Ltd. companys new identity, reflects its commitment towards providing world class mobility solutions with renewed focus on expanding companys footprint in the global arena. MISSION Hero MotoCorps mission is to become a global enterprise fulfilling its customers needs and aspirations for mobility, setting benchmarks in technology, styling and quality so that it converts its customers into its brand advocates. The company will provide an engaging environment for its people to perform to the ir true potential. It will continue its focus on value creation and enduring relationships with its partners STRATEGY Hero MotoCorps key strategies are to build a robust product portfolio across categories, explore growth opportunities globally, continuously improve its operational efficiency, aggressively expand its reach to customers, continue to invest in brand building activities and ensure customer and shareholder delight. Product Information And Product Mix * Achiever * Ambition 133, Ambition 135 * CBZ, CBZ Star,  CBZ Xtreme * CD 100, CD 100 SS, CD Dawn, CD Deluxe, CD Deluxe (Self Start) * Glamour, Glamour F. I * Hunk * Karizma, Karizma R, Karizma ZMR FI * Passion, Passion+, Passion Pro Pleasure * Splendor, Splendor+, Splendor+ (Limited Edition), Super Splendor, Splendor NXG,Splendor PRO * Impulse ACHIEVER features 5-Spoke, black alloy wheels. Best mileage in 150cc category. ATFT 150cc  Engine for the perfect balance of high power and fuel economy Specially designed seat for the great riding experience. Puncture resistant tuff-up tube COLours PRICE FOR MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Self Start 5 8,653 66,791 CBZ XTREME FEATURE New digital – Analog combo meter console All secure ignition switch with key shutter Diamond lustre headlight Anti drag fuel tank spoke wheels ; front and rear disc brakes. Prism shell LED tail lamp COLOUR PRICE in MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Self Start 58,653 66,791 CD DAWN FEATURES A new engine for better performance. Powerful headlight provides much improved visibility. New and advanced adjustable shock absorbers. Extra-wide seats for extra riding comfort. Padlock provision for theft security. Matte black for style ; good looks. Stylish muffler protector. Attractive graphics. COLOURS PRICE in MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Spoke Wheel 36,179 41,703 CD DELUX FEATURES New engine for enhanced performance ; stress-free ride. Trapezoidal multi-reflector headlight for enhanced visibility provides better safety ; trendy trapezoidal shape lends more appeal to the bike. Broad visor with aerodynamic shape. Cool 3D graphics ; knee grip makes the bike look very attractive ; a comfortable seating posture provides a stress-free ride. Extra wide seat, more seating space provides better riding comfort for both. COLOUR PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Spoke Wheel 36,179 41,703 GLAMOUR FEATURES Scintillating new graphics. All new stylish visor and headlights. Edgy new muffler cover. Eye catching digital analog combo meter console. All new aerodynamic air scoop shrouds. COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Drum 51,703 58,550 Disc 53,700 60,722 GLAMOUR FI FEATURES Edgy new visor and headlight. Real time mileage indicator. Bank angle sensor. New digital analog combo meter console Stunning new graphics. COLOURS PRICE in MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Drum 57,640 65,008 Disc 61,844 69,580 HUNK FEATURES Flared fenders and tubeless tyres Contured visior Analog-Digital speed panel in chrome-tinged flame orange console Red Hot LED tail light Ridged muffler cover with front and rear disc brakes. COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Single Disc 65,263 73,270 Double Disc 68,416 76,700 KARIZMA FEATURES Exciting new graphics Sporty undercowl Large diameter front-wheel disk brake Enhanced visor COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Black Cast 79,393 88,942 Red Cast 80,193 89,742 KARIZMA ZMR FEATURES Astra gold front and rear disc plates. Aerodynamic design for superior handling at high speeds Multi – Functional digital console with blue iIIumination and personalised message. Sporty full body cowl with body-coloured rear-view mirrors. Excellent visibility and less prone to damage High intensite integrated LED tail light with integrated clear lens indicators COLOURS PRICE in MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Cast Wheel 100,200 111,571 Passion Pro FEATURES Digital-Analog speedometer Stylish visor with black-tinted windscreen ; clear–lens indicator Radical twin bulb tall light Stylish new generation graphics New age high performance APDV engine Front disc option COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Cast Self 49,759 56,436 Spoke Self 48,708 55,293 PLEASURE FEATURES Exciting body graphics. Less turning radius Smooth suspension system New meter console Puncture-Resistant tuff up tube Trendy rear grip; modern tail light Powerful 100cc engine; gearless transmission with light-weight ABS body Wide seat; large under-seat box Extra leg room. Maintenance-Free battery COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Pleasure 42,916 48,949 SPLENDOR FEATURES Next generation aerodynamic design with Black alloy wheels Next generation attractive meter console and visor Power start Next generation styling Next generation advanced pro series APDV engine for better power, better mileage ; better acceleration Next generation clear lens winkers COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroomOn Road Cast Self 46,186 52,550 Spoke Self 45,135 51,407 SPLENDOR + FEATURES Exciting new body graphics Powerful multireflector headlight, tail light and indicators Stylish new alloy wheels Better suspension Carrier as part of standard equipment COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI | ExShowroom| On Road| Cast Wheel|   44,400|   50,607| Spoke Wheel|   43,349|   49,464| SPLENDOR PRO FEATURES Stylish meter console Exciting new body graphics Stylish new alloy wheels Power start COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI ExShowroom| On Road| Cast Self|   47,552|   54,036| Spoke Self|   46,501|   51,893| ALL THE ABOVE PRODUCTWERE WITH THE BRAND NAME HERO-HONDA AFTER RE-BRANDING THEY HAVE ONLY LAUNCHED ONE BIKE UNDER BRAND HERO NAMED HERO-IMPULSE HERO IMPULSE FEATURES High torque ATFT engine and high ground clearance for rough terrain riding Raised fender and large diameter front wheel with â€Å"stud pattern’ type tyres Sturdier front suspension with long stroke and large front disc brake for cross country riding Nitrox gas-filled mono shock rear suspension Straight pull spokes at the rear for touch terrains Low maintenance seal endless drive chain Digital-analog combo meter console with ‘service due’ indicator Sharp edgy graphics Motocross seat Sporty high mount muffler COLOURS PRICE IN MUMBAI | ExShowroom| On Road| Single Disc|   69,963|   78,330|

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Listening Essays

Listening Essays Listening Essay Listening Essay LISTEN UP! According to Raymond McNulty, â€Å"Everyone who expects to succeed in life should realize that success will come only if you give careful consideration to other people. † To accomplish this, you must be an excellent listener. One of the most critical skills that an individual acquires is the ability to listen. Studies indicate that a person spends 70 percent to 80 percent of his or her time communicating, of which 45 percent is spent listening. Nixon and West give the following breakdown for the average time an individual spends communicating. Writing 9 % Reading 16 % Speaking 30 % Listening 45 % Since almost half of the time spent communicating is spent listening, it is important to overcome any obstacles that obstruct our ability to listen and to learn new ways to improve our listening ability. Barriers to Listening Anything that interferes with our ability to listen is classified as a barrier to listening. These barriers can be divided into two basic categories- external and internal barriers. Internal Barriers. Internal barriers are those that deal with the mental or psychological aspects of listening. The perception of the importance of the message, the emotional state, and the tuning in and out of the speaker by the listener are examples of internal barriers. External Barriers. External barriers are the barriers other than those that deal with the mental and psychological make up of the listener that tend to keep the listener from devoting full attention to what is being said. Telephone interruptions, uninvited visitors, noise, and the physical environment are examples of external barriers. Ways to Improve Listening Barriers to listening can be overcome. However, it does take a sincere effort on the part of the listener. Neher and Waite suggest the following ways to improve listening skills. Be aware of the barriers that are especially troublesome for you. Listening difficulties are individualistic. Developing awareness is an important step in overcoming such barriers. Listen as though you will have to paraphrase what is being said. Listen for ideas rather than for facts. Expect to work to at listening. Work at overcoming distractions, such as the speaker’s delivery or nonverbal mannerisms. Concentrate on summarizing the presentation as you listen. If possible, think of additional supporting material that would fit with the point that the speaker is making. Avoid trying to refute the speaker. Try not to be turned off by remarks you disagree with. H. Dan O’ Hair, James S. O’ Rourke IV, and Mary John O’ Hair, Business Communication: A Framework for Success (Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing, 2001), p. 211. Judy C. Nixon and Judy F. West, â€Å"Listening- The New Competency,† The Balance Sheet (January/February 1989), pp. 27-29. William W. Neher and David H. Waite, The Business and Professional Communicator (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1993), p. 28.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Immigrant Voting Eligibility and Requirements

Immigrant Voting Eligibility and Requirements Naturalization typically increases as national elections draw closer, as more immigrants want to participate in the democratic process. This is especially true if immigration issues become important to the campaigns, as in 2016 when Donald Trump proposed building a wall across the U.S. border with Mexico and putting sanctions on Muslim immigrants. Naturalization applications increased by 11% in the 2015 fiscal year over the year before, and jumped 14% leading into 2016, according to U.S. immigration officials. A surge in naturalization applications among Latinos and Hispanics appears linked to Trumps positions on immigration. Officials say by the November election, close to 1 million new citizens could be eligible to vote an increase of about 20% over typical levels. More Hispanic voters is likely good news for Democrats who have relied on immigrant support in recent national elections. Worse for Republicans, polls showed that eight out of 10 Hispanic voters had a negative opinion about Trump. Who Can Vote in the United States? Simply put, only U.S. citizens can vote in the United States. Immigrants who are naturalized U.S. citizens can vote, and they have exactly the same voting privileges as natural-born U.S. citizens. There is no difference. Here are the basic qualifications for voting eligibility: You must be a U.S. citizen.Green card holders, or permanent residents, are not allowed to vote in national elections. A few localities - only a few - allow green card-holders to vote in municipal elections. But otherwise, as an immigrant, to participate in state and national elections, you must have completed the naturalization process and earned U.S. citizenship.You must have lived in the state where you’re intending to vote for a minimum period of time. It’s usually 30 days but does vary from some states to others. Check with your local elections officials.You must be at least 18 years old on or before election day. A few states permit 17-year-olds to vote in primaries if they will turn 18 by the general election. Check with your local elections officials.You must not have a felony conviction that disqualifies you from voting. If you have been convicted of a serious crime, you must get your civil rights restored to vote, and that’s not an easy process.You must not have been declared â€Å"mentally incompetent† by a court of law. Immigrants who are not naturalized U.S. citizens face serious criminal penalties if they try to vote in an election illegally. They risk a fine, imprisonment or deportation. Also, it is important that your naturalization process is completed before you try to vote. You must have taken the oath and formally become a U.S. citizen before you can legally vote and participate fully in American democracy. Voting Registration Rules Vary by the State The Constitution allows the states wide discretion to set voting registration and election rules. This means that registering to vote in New Hampshire can have different requirements than registering to vote in Wyoming or Florida or Missouri. And the dates of local and state elections also vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, the forms of identification that are acceptable in one state may not be in others. It’s very important to find out what the rules are in your state of residence. One way to do this is to visit your local state elections office. Another way is to go online. Nearly all states have websites where up-to-the-minute voting information is readily accessible. Where To Find Information on Voting A good place to find out your state’s rules for voting is the Election Assistance Commission. The EAC website has a state-by-state breakdown of voting dates, registration procedures and election rules. The EAC maintains a National Mail Voter Registration Form that includes voter registration rules and regulations for all the states and territories. It can be a valuable tool for immigrant citizens who are trying to learn how to participate in U.S. democracy. It is possible to use the form to register to vote or to change your voting information. In most states, it’s possible to complete the National Mail Voter Registration Form and simply print it, sign it and mail it to the address listed under your state in the State Instructions. You can also use this form to update your name or address, or to register with a political party. However, once again, states have different rules and not all states accept the National Mail Voter Registration Form. North Dakota, Wyoming, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands do not accept it. New Hampshire accepts it only as a request for an absentee voter mail-in registration form. For an excellent overview of voting and elections across the country, go to the USA.gov website where the government offers a wealth of information about the democratic process. Where Do You Register To Vote? You may be able to sign up to vote in person at the public places listed below. But again, remember that what applies in one state may not apply in another: The state or local voter registration or elections office, sometimes known as the elections supervisor’s office.The department of motor vehicles. Yes, where you get a driver’s license is often also the place where you can register to vote.Certain public assistance agencies. Some states use the social services network to promote voter registration.Armed services recruitment centers. A military recruiter may be able to help you sign up to vote.State-run programs that help people with disabilities.Any public entity that a state has designated as a voter registration center. Do some research to find out if there’s a government facility near you that might be able to help. Taking Advantage of Absentee or Early Voting In recent years, many states have done more to make it easier for voters to participate through early voting days and absentee ballots. Some voters may find it impossible to make to the polls on the Election Day. Perhaps they’re out of the country or hospitalized, for example. Registered voters from every state can request an absentee ballot that can be returned by mail. Some states require that you give them a specific reason - an excuse - why you are unable to go to the polls. Other states have no such requirement. Check with your local officials. All states will mail an absentee ballot to eligible voters who request one.  The voter may then return the completed ballot by mail or in person.  In 20  states, an excuse is required, while  27  states and the District of Columbia permit any qualified voter to vote absentee without giving an excuse.  Some states offer a permanent absentee ballot list: once a voter asks to be added to the list, the voter will automatically receive an absentee ballot for all future elections. As of 2016, Colorado, Oregon and Washington used all-mail voting. Every eligible voter automatically receives a ballot in the mail. Those ballots can be returned in person or by mail when a voter completes them. More than two-thirds of the states - 37 and also the District of Columbia - offer some sort of early voting opportunity. You can cast your ballot days before Election Day at various locations. Check with your local election office to find out what early voting opportunities are available where you live. Be Sure To Check for ID Law in Your State By 2016, a total of 36  states had passed laws requiring voters to show some form of identification at the polls, usually a photo ID.  Roughly 33  of these voter identification laws were expected to be in force by the 2016 presidential election. The others are tied up in the courts. Laws in Arkansas, Missouri  and Pennsylvania laws have been struck down going into the 2016 presidential race. The remaining 17  states use other methods to verify the identity of voters. Again, it varies from state to state. Most frequently, other identifying information a voter provides at the polling place, such as a signature, is checked against information on file. In general, states with Republican governors and legislatures have pushed for photo IDs, claiming a higher standard of identity verification is needed to prevent fraud. Democrats have opposed photo ID laws, arguing the voting fraud is virtually non-existent in the United States and the ID requirements are a hardship for the elderly and poor. President Obama’s administrations have opposed the requirements. A study by researchers at Arizona State University found 28 cases of voter fraud convictions since 2000. Of those, 14% involved absentee ballot fraud. â€Å"Voter impersonation, the form of fraud that voter ID laws are designed to prevent, made up only 3.6% of those cases,† according to the study’s authors. Democrats argue that if Republicans were really serious about cracking down on the rare cases of fraud that have occurred, Republicans would do something about absentee voting where the likelihood of misconduct is far greater. In 1950, South Carolina became the first state to require identification from voters at the polls. Hawaii started requiring IDs in 1970 and Texas followed a year later. Florida joined the movement in 1977, and gradually dozens of states fell in line. In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the Help America Vote Act into law. It required all first-time voters in federal elections to show a photo or non-photo ID upon either registration or arrival at the polling place A Brief History of Immigrant Voting in the U.S. Most Americans don’t realize that immigrants - foreigners or non-citizens - were commonly allowed to vote in elections during the Colonial era. More than 40 states or territories, including the original 13 colonies leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, have allowed foreigners voting rights for at least some elections. Non-citizen voting was widespread in the United States for the first 150 years of its history. During the Civil War, Southern states turned against allowing voting rights to immigrants because of their opposition to slavery and support for the North. In 1874 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that residents in Missouri, who were foreign-born but had committed to becoming U.S. citizens, should be allowed to vote. But a generation later, public sentiment had swung against immigrants. The growing waves of new arrivals from Europe - Ireland, Italy and Germany in particular - brought a backlash against giving rights to non-citizens and accelerating their assimilation into U.S. society. In 1901, Alabama stopped allowing foreign-born residents to vote. Colorado followed a year later, and then Wisconsin in 1902 and Oregon in 1914. By World War I, more and more native-born residents opposed allowing newly arrived immigrants to participate in U.S. democracy. In 1918, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota all changed their constitutions to deny non-citizens voting rights, and Indiana, Mississippi and Texas followed. Arkansas became the last state to ban voting rights for foreigners in 1926. Since then, the way into the voting booth for immigrants is through naturalization.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Business research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Business research - Essay Example The company’s recent expansion was in 2011 when Topshop launched its operations in Australia. Topshop is a significant component of the Arcadia Group that owns several retail outlets. There are close to 440 shops under this business name of Topshop in 33 counties. The management of this organization also allows it to conduct some of its business operations using the online criteria (Davis & Baldwin 2005, p. 112). Mark & Spencer is also based in Britain and retails in clothing and luxury foods. Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer founded it in 1884 (Your M and S 2012). Its Headquarters are in Westminster London; however, it has more than 1000 stores are spread across Europe. The company is denoted as M&S or Marks and Sparks. It has close to 81, 000 employees who facilitate its realization of exemplary profits (Davis & Baldwin, 2005, p. 112). These companies have various stakeholders who facilitate the growth of the respective enterprises. For example, Topshop’s website reveals that its chief stakeholders are its employees, customers and suppliers. The website also acknowledges that other stakeholders include business enterprises, which collaborate with them. Mark & Spencer describe its chief stakeholders as the two proprietors mentioned above. Other partners also own the company apart from Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. These are stakeholders in this retail outlet. Their final stakeholders are their employees (Davis & Baldwin 2005, p. 112). Stakeholders play significant roles in the entire operations of these two companies. These stakeholders have diverse expectations on organization’s purpose and choice of specific strategies. The management of the companies expects to register high profit levels in their respective operations (Preble 2005 p.112). They choose strategies that will facilitate the growth of these businesses. For example, both companies have employed e marketing that is a strategic

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Alternative strategies for Ducati Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Alternative strategies for Ducati - Essay Example Though Ducati products were well accomplished with technical excellence, as Professor Gavetti (2001) points out, the decision of the major shareholders to refocus on products other than motorcycles led way to the turn down of the company. The acquisition of Ducati by Cagiva improved the Ducati’s status in the market but eventually resulted in liquidity crisis which deprived the working capital funding of Ducati. As a result there was much delay in the payment as well as production. Ducati instead of widening its market to the production of variety of other products, it must utilize the technical excellence of its product lines for the manufacture of motor cycles. It must think of bringing up innovativeness in the design of motorcycles to attract and fascinate the customers. Women were found to contribute a major part of the customers for other motorcycle manufacturers like Harley. Hence, Ducati must pay attention to the choices of women and try to retain them as main customers . One of the key reasons for the under utilization of the Ducati’s potential and excellence was the lack of effective management strategies. Effective and well organized managerial strategies are recommendable for the development of any company and its trade. Thus Ducati must be directed by a dynamic and committed management in order to implement effective managerial strategies. The presence of a vibrant manger would eradicate the chaos and internal problems which were found to be significant barriers for the creative decision making. Identifying the real passion of people and implementing those in the production can be highly advantageous for Ducati in drawing the attention of customers and persuading them to buy the products. It is inevitable to focus on creating a good stature in the international market in order to grab the attention of customers because customer satisfaction is the ultimate objective of the modern market. As the competition is rising, Ducati must concent rate on building broader spectrum of customers by conducting effective market researches and thereby upgrading innovativeness in the production processes. According to Gavetti (11), Ducati adopted firm selection procedures and other control measures which resulted in the reduction of the number of suppliers; they hardly had any long term suppliers. Though this enhanced the quality and reliability of their products, it resulted in the increased maintenance costs. It is required to focus on the quality of products and at the same it’s important to maintain adequate number of suppliers. The choices of the sources of suppliers can be increased only by maintaining adequate number of suppliers. It is possible to choose the potential supply at affordable prices through the option of selection from a wide range of suppliers which would assist the company to increase the effectiveness of its operations. To conclude, Ducati should be up-to-date with the varying tastes and preferences o f the consumers and try to bring the identified needs to the product line. The major suggestions are listed below 1. In the given case, exhibit 5 represents that Ducati does not produce cruiser, touring or off-road bikes; instead, they mainly concentrate on bikes over 400 cc. It would only satisfy the interests of youngsters, and the majority public has been ignored. So, it is advisable that Ducati should enter the market of general types of motor cycles also. 2. Similarly, exhibit 8 indicates that sales of super-sport bikes do not show a noticeable upward trend. Hence, it is suggestible to make adequate modifications in this model after surveying consumers’

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Meaning of life - Question Essay Example for Free

Meaning of life Question Essay Freud, like Newton and Darwin, did not consider himself to be a philosopher but had an enormous influence over philosophy, he believed that to consider the question: â€Å"what is the meaning of life? † is a waste of time. The question, he thought, is rather meaningless and has no ultimate answer, asking it is being somewhat like asking what the color of time is (Mason). There are serious arguments that can be advanced in support of this point of view, especially if we agree that meaning is not something inherent to events, things, and other processes and so on, but something we ascribe to them (Mason). To think otherwise would involve ascribing them something that is a product of our intellect and consciousness. The meaning of X, whether X is an event, a thing, or a process, is actually the connection or a set of those connections X has with other events, things, and processes and so on, which we choose to consider to be of particularly importance to us (Mason). This is why the same events have different meaning for different people. For a Chinese, be he a Communist or an anti-Communist, the meaning of the war in Korea is that it marks the end of a century of national humiliation and a permanent threat of devastation through a long series of military defeats by foreign powers; for an American, the meaning of that very same war is that it put an end to the attempts to expand by direct military invasion the influence of Chinese Communism (Adams). There are undoubtedly countless amounts of explanations to this riddle, and there are many circumstances that can change one’s perspective towards this problem, but ultimately, there is no right or wrong answer. Paragraph 2: Everything changes radically, of course, if we belong to a Church. Everything is noted under God’s eye For believers, their life long goal is to sustain God’s knowledge and go his way. Go to the right passage and obey his â€Å"laws† Their passage of life consists of saving one’s immortal soul. Duty of life makes up the meaning of life. Paragraph 3: The practical Romans grasped something that over the head of two millennia of Christianity resonates with contemporary pragmatism, and with the life philosophy resumed in the dictum â€Å"the meaning of life is life itself† Meaning of life is life itself Living the life in happiness is the meaning of life. Anything that fits you the best will become your meaning of life. Find out your goals, what you want to achieve life, and that will become your meaning of life ultimately. Limitations will apply. Paragraph 4: Living your life according to this life philosophy, which is the most commonly chosen among the life philosophies derived from the answer â€Å"the meaning of life consists in living life†, is usually not too difficult for a â€Å"normal† person living under â€Å"normal† circumstances. Meaning of life depended on the status of the person. Meaning of life is to live a good life. Do not know what exactly is a good life but a good life will be noted. Everyone has different meanings to life. Paragraph 5 (Conclusion): But be it Confucius, Aristotle or even Kant with his theory of being impossible to achieve moral perfection or any other of the great minds each of whom spent years of their lives trying to provide humanity with an answer to the fatal question, essentially, they trying to tell us what to live for and how to live. Namely, almost all the answers they offered have the same basic flaw: when they are workable at all, they work only for very few exceptional individuals and are way beyond the reach for the rest of us (Shields); us, those weak, silly and prone to sin creatures that make up the vast majority of humankind. Luckily, this vast majority do not worry too much about what great minds have in mind, but just live their lives as they best can according to their own, petty, senseless wishes and notions (Metz): work their gardens, even if they never heard of Voltaire, and whether they know that Freud existed or not, do not waste their humble intellectual potential trying to answer a question that has no answer (Metz). The rest is a senseless waste of time, â€Å"Primum vivere, deindre filosofare†, and if you spend too much time and effort philophizing, you will have no time nor energy to live, which involves earning money to pay the bills. As to the great eternal and fundamental questions, let’s leave them to professional philosophers whom society pays to do this specific job, as it pays plumbers to do the plumbing, scientists to explore nature, nurses to help the sick, the clowns to entertain us.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Comparing the Social Criticism of Voltaires Candide and Samuel Johnso

Comparing the Social Criticism of Voltaire's Candide and Samuel Johnson's Rasselas      Ã‚  Ã‚   Samuel Johnson and Voltaire were both writers of enormous social conscience in the eighteenth century. It is not surprising then to discover that both men wrote short tales dealing primarily with criticism of the human condition. Ironically, these books were written and published within weeks of each other in 1759 (Enright 16). Johnson's Rasselas and Voltaire's Candide are strikingly similar in their use of the episodic and romantic picaresque motifs. The underlying purpose within each author's criticism, however, allows many differences in the two tales to surface. The author's intentions diverge beyond superficial similarities and each work develops a unique vantage point from which to observe humanity.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Neither work can be accused of being a realistic tale. These moral fables are set in a fantastic, utopian, and ludicrous world. The distance from the reader in each tale is quite different, however. Johnson places realistic characters in an unrealistic world. He remains on the same level with his characters, describing the situations and environment in which they find themselves. In this manner the reader can identify with and feel empathy for the characters in Rasselas. They are thinking, caring, fallible human beings equal to the reader and the author.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Voltaire creates a chasm between humanity and the world of Candide. The reader laughs not only at the situation or environment, for the characters are just as ludicrous as the world in which they live. It is possible that Voltaire wants his audience to assume a position of moral superiority when reading the tale. The reader cannot take characte... ...liography Enright, D.J.   Introduction.   The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. By Samuel Johnson. London: Penguin Group, 1976.   p.12,16.  Ã‚   Hill, G.B.   Introduction. The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. By Samuel Johnson.   Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1887.   p.17.  Ã‚   Johnson, Samuel. The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. Ed. Enright, D.J.   London: Penguin Group,1988.   p.43,45,65,103   Johnson, Samuel.   "The Rambler No.184."   Rpt. in Enright, D.J.   Introduction. The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. By Samuel Johnson. London: Penguin Group, 1976. p.32.  Ã‚   Maurois, Andre.   "The Sage of Ferney."   Voltaire.   New York: D. Appleton & Co, 1932.   Rpt. in Candide.   Trans. Bair, Lowell.   New York: Bantam Books, 1988.   P.6-7.  Ã‚   Voltaire.   Candide.   Trans. Bair, Lowell.   New York: Bantam Books, 1988.   p.73,120.